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CD164 is a novel 80- to 90-kD mucin-like molecule expressed by human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells. Our previous results suggest that this receptor may play a key role in hematopoiesis by facilitating the adhesion of CD34(+) cells to bone marrow stroma and by negatively regulating CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cell growth. These functional effects are mediated by at least two spatially distinct epitopes, defined by the monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), 103B2/9E10 and 105A5. In this report, we show that these MoAbs, together with two other CD164 MoAbs, N6B6 and 67D2, show distinct patterns of reactivity when analyzed on hematopoietic cells from normal human bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that, on average, 63% to 82% of human bone marrow and 55% to 93% of cord blood CD34(+) cells are CD164(+), with expression of the 105A5 epitope being more variable than that of the other identified epitopes. Extensive multiparameter flow cytometric analyses were performed on cells expressing the 103B2/9E10 functional epitope. These analyses showed that the majority (>90%) of CD34(+) human bone marrow and cord blood cells that were CD38(lo/-) or that coexpressed AC133, CD90(Thy-1), CD117(c-kit), or CD135(FLT-3) were CD164(103B2/9E10)+. This CD164 epitope was generally detected on a significant proportion of CD34(+)CD71(lo/-) or CD34(+)CD33(lo/-) cells. In accord with our previous in vitro progenitor assay data, these phenotypes suggest that the CD164(103B2/9E10) epitope is expressed by a very primitive hematopoietic progenitor cell subset. It is of particular interest to note that the CD34(+)CD164(103B2/9E10)lo/- cells in bone marrow are mainly CD19(+) B-cell precursors, with the CD164(103B2/9E10) epitope subsequently appearing on CD34(lo/-)CD19(+) and CD34(lo/-)CD20(+) B cells in bone marrow, but being virtually absent from B cells in the peripheral blood. Further analyses of the CD34(lo/-)CD164(103B2/9E10)+ subsets indicated that one of the most prominent populations consists of maturing erythroid cells. The expression of the CD164(103B2/9E10) epitope precedes the appearance of the glycophorin C, glycophorin A, and band III erythroid lineage markers but is lost on terminal differentiation of the erythroid cells. Expression of this CD164(103B2/9E10) epitope is also found on developing myelomonocytic cells in bone marrow, being downregulated on mature neutrophils but maintained on monocytes in the peripheral blood. We have extended these studies further by identifying Pl artificial chromosome (PAC) clones containing the CD164 gene and have used these to localize the CD164 gene specifically to human chromosome 6q21.


Journal article



Publication Date





849 - 866


MRC Molecular Haematology Unit, Institute of Molecular Medicine, The John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.


Blood Cells, Bone Marrow Cells, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Cells, Cultured, Hybrid Cells, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6, Fetal Blood, Animals, Humans, Mice, Neuraminidase, Bacterial Proteins, Mucins, Antigens, CD34, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Epitopes, Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect, Flow Cytometry, In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence, Chromosome Mapping, Cloning, Molecular, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cell Differentiation, Hematopoiesis, Erythropoiesis, Organ Specificity, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Cell Lineage, Gene Library, Cricetinae, Male, Erythroid Precursor Cells