Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

PURPOSE: The classification of indeterminate cytopathology at thyroid fine-needle-aspiration (FNA) has been updated to reduce the number of unnecessary surgery; the 2014 Italian classification introduced the low-risk (TIR3A) and high-risk (TIR3B) subcategories. Aim of this study was to identify the ultrasonographic (US), clinical and cytological predictors of malignancy among TIR3B nodules from a single institution. METHODS: A prospective observational study including 1844 patients who underwent thyroid FNA from June 2014 to January 2019. Ultrasonographic, clinical and cytological features were recorded. All TIR3B diagnoses were referred to surgery. According to final histology, patients were divided into thyroid cancer (TC) or benign nodules. Chi-square test, or Fisher exact test when appropriate, were used to compare groups and logistic regression analyses were used to determine independent predictors of malignancy. RESULTS: Of 1844 FNAs, 96 (5.2%) were TIR3B. Histology report was available in 65. Among them, 25 (38.5%) were TC. Predictors of TC were nodule size 

Original publication




Journal article


J Endocrinol Invest

Publication Date





1115 - 1123


Fine needle aspiration, Indeterminate cytopathology, TIR3B, Thyroid cancer, Thyroid nodules, Ultrasonography, Biopsy, Fine-Needle, Cytodiagnosis, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Italy, Male, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Risk Factors, Thyroid Neoplasms, Thyroid Nodule