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This review describes the temporal changes of high-energy phosphate metabolites during the cardiac cycle. Under baseline condition, the extent of cyclical changes ("cycling") of ATP, phosphocreatine and inorganic phosphate varies between 10-15%. Such energy oscillations are not augmented under various forms of metabolic stress including 1) inotropic stimulation, 2) acute hypoxia and 3) failing, chronically infarcted hearts. Thus, the concentrations of high-energy phosphates over the cardiac cycle are a tightly regulated entity, even when energetic needs are substantially augmented.


Journal article


Basic Res Cardiol

Publication Date





553 - 556


Adenosine Triphosphate, Animals, Energy Metabolism, Myocardial Contraction, Myocardium