In sickness and in health: The functional role of extracellular vesicles in physiology and pathology in vivo: Part II: Pathology: Part II: Pathology.
Yates AG., Pink RC., Erdbrügger U., Siljander PR-M., Dellar ER., Pantazi P., Akbar N., Cooke WR., Vatish M., Dias-Neto E., Anthony DC., Couch Y.
It is clear from Part I of this series that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of most, if not all, normal physiological systems. However, the majority of our knowledge about EV signalling has come from studying them in disease. Indeed, EVs have consistently been associated with propagating disease pathophysiology. The analysis of EVs in biofluids, obtained in the clinic, has been an essential of the work to improve our understanding of their role in disease. However, to interfere with EV signalling for therapeutic gain, a more fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which they contribute to pathogenic processes is required. Only by discovering how the EV populations in different biofluids change-size, number, and physicochemical composition-in clinical samples, may we then begin to unravel their functional roles in translational models in vitro and in vivo, which can then feedback to the clinic. In Part II of this review series, the functional role of EVs in pathology and disease will be discussed, with a focus on in vivo evidence and their potential to be used as both biomarkers and points of therapeutic intervention.