Comparative efficacy of glucose-lowering medications on body weight and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
Tsapas A., Karagiannis T., Kakotrichi P., Avgerinos I., Mantsiou C., Tousinas G., Manolopoulos A., Liakos A., Malandris K., Matthews DR., Bekiari E.
AIM: To compare the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on body weight and blood pressure in adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and grey literature sources until September 29, 2020 for randomized controlled trials of at least 24 weeks' duration assessing the effects of glucose-lowering drugs on body weight and blood pressure in adults with type 2 diabetes. We did frequentist network meta-analyses and calculated weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals combining trial arms of different approved doses of a given intervention into a single group. We evaluated the confidence in pooled estimates using the CINeMA (Confidence In Network Meta-Analysis) framework. RESULTS: 424 trials (276336 patients) assessing 21 antidiabetic medications from nine drug classes were included. Subcutaneous semaglutide was the most efficacious in reducing body weight followed by oral semaglutide, exenatide twice daily, liraglutide, and the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors empagliflozin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ertugliflozin. The same agents also conferred the greatest reductions in systolic blood pressure. Metformin had a modest effect in reducing body weight and systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure was reduced with SGLT-2 inhibitors, pioglitazone, exenatide twice daily, and semaglutide. In subgroup analyses of trials with over 52 weeks' duration, semaglutide and SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced both body weight and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Semaglutide and SGLT-2 inhibitors conferred reductions both in body weight and blood pressure that were sustainable for over one year of treatment. These agents may be preferable treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes who are overweight/obese and/or hypertensive. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.