Cardiovascular disease in women: insights from magnetic resonance imaging.
Bucciarelli-Ducci C., Ostenfeld E., Baldassarre LA., Ferreira VM., Frank L., Kallianos K., Raman SV., Srichai MB., McAlindon E., Mavrogeni S., Ntusi NAB., Schulz-Menger J., Valente AM., Ordovas KG.
The presentation and identification of cardiovascular disease in women pose unique diagnostic challenges compared to men, and underrecognized conditions in this patient population may lead to clinical mismanagement.This article reviews the sex differences in cardiovascular disease, explores the diagnostic and prognostic role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the spectrum of cardiovascular disorders in women, and proposes the added value of CMR compared to other imaging modalities. In addition, this article specifically reviews the role of CMR in cardiovascular diseases occurring more frequently or exclusively in female patients, including Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, connective tissue disorders, primary pulmonary arterial hypertension and peripartum cardiomyopathy. Gaps in knowledge and opportunities for further investigation of sex-specific cardiovascular differences by CMR are also highlighted.