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The promise of personalized medicine to deliver "the right treatments at the right time to the right person" is the next frontier in healthcare. However, to implement personalized medicine in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a number of different aspects need to be taken into account. Better risk stratification and more precise options for treatment need to be developed and included in clinical practice guidelines. A patient's unique psychological, social and environmental situation also drive disease progression and outcomes. Appraising the cost effectiveness of precision medicines is necessary, not just as the cost of new therapies, but also the cost of diagnosis with novel methodologies and averted complications. As the prevalence of DKD grows worldwide to epidemic proportions, challenges such as global disparities in resources, access to healthcare and prevalence need to be addressed. This review considers these issues to achieve the short and longer-term goals of implementing personalized medicine in clinical practice.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabetes, obesity & metabolism

Publication Date



20 Suppl 3


24 - 29


Department of Internal Medicine, Antonius Ziekenhuis, Sneek, the Netherlands.


Humans, Diabetic Nephropathies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Hypoglycemic Agents, Attitude to Health, Systems Biology, Professional Practice, Practice Guidelines as Topic, Global Health, Precision Medicine