Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates protein kinase C-dependent phospholipase D activity in endothelial cells.
Seymour LW., Shoaibi MA., Martin A., Ahmed A., Elvin P., Kerr DJ., Wakelam MJ.
Many tumors produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a paracrine factor acting selectively on endothelial cells. VEGF has many effects on cultured endothelial cells and mediates angiogenesis and enhanced vascular permeability in vivo. The endothelial signal transduction pathways of VEGF represent novel targets for cancer therapy because they are readily accessible to systemically administered drugs. We have examined VEGF-stimulated signals generated in HUVEC to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The transphosphatidylation reaction has been used to monitor phospholipase D (PLD) activity; total inositol phosphates have been measured after prelabeling of cells with [3H]myoinositol; and intracellular free calcium has been measured using Fura-2 fluorescence. After HUVEC-stimulation with VEGF, there is an early influx of calcium (maximal by 100 seconds) followed by activation of PLD (half maximal by 100 seconds, EC50 70 pm). The PLD activity was inhibited by reducing extracellular calcium (150 nM, 50% inhibition), exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13 acetate (200 nM, 24 hours, 100% inhibition), Roche 31,8220 (10 microM, 15 minutes, 72% inhibition), or genestein (100 microM, 30 minutes, 56% inhibition), which suggests a dependence on both protein kinase C and tyrosine phosphorylation. Activation of phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate was inferred from the production of inositol phosphates, although this response was slower (half maximal by 3 minutes). The phospholipase C activity was also dependent on influx of calcium and was partially inhibited by low (150 nM) extracellular calcium. PLD may be involved in mediating a number of endothelial responses to tumor-secreted VEGF, notably cytoskeleton-dependent effects such as the cell migration involved in angiogenesis. This signal transduction pathway could represent an accessible and vulnerable target for cancer therapeutic intervention and has the novelty of being located within normal cells rather than tumor cells.