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OBJECTIVES: (i) To develop a major haemorrhage simulation training programme. (ii) To design an assessment tool to measure the effectiveness of this programme. (iii) To use simulation training to create more effective protocols. BACKGROUND: Major haemorrhage is a time-critical medical emergency that can be faced by every Foundation Year (FY) doctor. Standard methods of teaching provide limited opportunity for junior doctors to improve their knowledge and practical skills for major haemorrhage situations. Simulation is increasingly used in medical training but has not been used as a means both to facilitate learning and refine hospital major haemorrhage policy. METHODS: The effect of major haemorrhage simulation on attendees' learning was compared to a comparator group not exposed to simulation. Questionnaire pre-simulation and 3 months post-simulation training assessed knowledge of the Trust Major Haemorrhage Protocol (MHP). RESULTS: Sixteen FY1 doctors attended simulation training. The comparator group included 47 FY1 doctors. No significant difference was found between simulation and comparator groups on baseline questionnaire scores. The simulation group showed significant improvement (total score, mean standard deviation (SD) pre-test 27.15 (4.02), post-test 39.13 (3.91), p < 0.001). The comparator group showed no significant change (total score, pre-test 25.06 (5.70), post-test 23.54 (6.85), p = 0.33) (19 lost to follow up). The study resulted in the production of a new MHP. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that simulation training improved doctors' knowledge in major haemorrhage management and that the experience of observing the simulation training allowed senior staff to undertake analysis and improvement of an existing MHP.

Original publication




Journal article


Transfus Med

Publication Date





379 - 384


major haemorrhage, massive haemorrhage, protocol, simulation training, Education, Continuing, Female, Hemorrhage, Humans, Male, Patient Simulation