A simplified approach to temporary DDD pacing using a single lead, balloon-tipped catheter with overlapping biphasic impulse stimulation.
Ferguson JD., Lever N., Channon KM., Bashir Y.
Temporary DDD pacing offers significant hemodynamic benefits in emergency management of bradyarrhythmias but is underused because of its complexity (two leads) and unreliability. Single lead VDD pacing with atrial sensing via a floating dipole is feasible, but atrial pacing is limited by high thresholds and phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS). Overlapping biphasic impulse (OLBI) stimulation may avoid these problems. The authors designed a single lead balloon-tipped catheter for temporary transvenous DDD pacing, incorporating noncontact atrial dipoles for OLBI stimulation. This catheter was deployed using fluoroscopic guidance in 74 patients (43 men, 31 women) with mean age 56.9 +/- 17.0 years. Pacing parameters were assessed at implantation and follow-up. The median procedural time was 6.6 (range 1.2-25.0) minutes and fluoroscopy time 1.9 (range 0.2-7.8) minutes. Stable VDD pacing was achieved in all cases. Atrial capture was achieved in 73 of 74 cases with both modes at maximum output but was restricted by PNS at outputs below atrial capture threshold in 3 of 74 cases with OLBI and 10 of 74 cases with standard bipolar mode (P = 0.04). At outputs > or = 1.0 V above atrial threshold, reliable DDD pacing without PNS was achieved and maintained in 67 (91%) of 74 patients in OLBI compared to 53 (72%) of 74 patients in bipolar mode (P = 0.003). Pacing parameters were stable during follow-up (median 53 hours, range 6-168 hours). In conclusion, the single lead catheter with OLBI stimulation allows temporary VDD and DDD pacing without PNS to be achieved in > 90% of patients. This rapid and convenient approach should facilitate DDD pacing in emergency settings.