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The exit of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes from inflamed skin to afferent lymph is vital for the initiation and maintenance of dermal immune responses. How such an exit is achieved and how cells transmigrate the distinct endothelium of lymphatic vessels are unknown. We show that inflammatory cytokines trigger activation of dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), leading to expression of the key leukocyte adhesion receptors intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin, as well as a discrete panel of chemokines and other potential regulators of leukocyte transmigration. Furthermore, we show that both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are induced in the dermal lymphatic vessels of mice exposed to skin contact hypersensitivity where they mediate lymph node trafficking of dendritic cells (DCs) via afferent lymphatics. Lastly, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates both DC adhesion and transmigration of dermal LEC monolayers in vitro and that the process is efficiently inhibited by ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion-blocking monoclonal antibodies. These results reveal a CAM-mediated mechanism for recruiting leukocytes to the lymph nodes in inflammation and highlight the process of lymphatic transmigration as a potential new target for antiinflammatory therapy.

Original publication

DOI

10.1084/jem.20051759

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Exp Med

Publication Date

27/11/2006

Volume

203

Pages

2763 - 2777

Keywords

Adult, Animals, Cells, Cultured, Dermatitis, Contact, Endothelium, Lymphatic, Humans, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Leukocytes, Lymphatic Vessels, Male, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1