Desmoteplase 3 to 9 Hours After Major Artery Occlusion Stroke: The DIAS-4 Trial (Efficacy and Safety Study of Desmoteplase to Treat Acute Ischemic Stroke).
von Kummer R., Mori E., Truelsen T., Jensen J-KS., Grønning BA., Fiebach JB., Lovblad K-O., Pedraza S., Romero JM., Chabriat H., Chang K-C., Dávalos A., Ford GA., Grotta J., Kaste M., Schwamm LH., Shuaib A., Albers GW., DIAS-4 Investigators None.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The DIAS-3 trial (Efficacy and Safety Study of Desmoteplase to Treat Acute Ischemic Stroke [phase 3]) did not demonstrate a significant clinical benefit of desmoteplase administered 3 to 9 hours after stroke in patients with major artery occlusion. We present the results of the prematurely terminated DIAS-4 trial together with a post hoc pooled analysis of the concomitant DIAS-3, DIAS-4, and DIAS-J (Japan) trials to better understand the potential risks and benefits of intravenous desmoteplase for the treatment of ischemic stroke in an extended time window. METHODS: Ischemic stroke patients with occlusion/high-grade stenosis in major cerebral arteries were randomly assigned to intravenous treatment with desmoteplase (90 μg/kg) or placebo. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 2 at day 90. Safety assessments included mortality, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and other serious adverse events. RESULTS: In DIAS-4, 52 of 124 (41.9%) desmoteplase-treated and 46 of 128 (35.9%) placebo-treated patients achieved an mRS score of 0 to 2 (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.79; 2.64; P=0.23) with equal mortality, frequency of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and other serious adverse events in both the treatment arms. In the pooled analysis, mRS score of 0 to 2 was achieved by 184 of 376 (48.9%) desmoteplase-treated versus 171 of 381 (44.9%) placebo-treated patients (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.95; 1.85; P=0.096). Treatment with desmoteplase was safe and increased the recanalization rate (107/217 [49.3%] versus 85/222 [38.3%]; odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.35; P=0.019). Recanalization was associated with favorable outcomes (mRS 0-2) at day 90 in both the treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: Late treatment with intravenous 90 µg/kg desmoteplase is safe, increases arterial recanalization, but does not significantly improve functional outcome at 3 months. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00856661.