TLR2 is expressed on activated T cells as a costimulatory receptor.
Komai-Koma M., Jones L., Ogg GS., Xu D., Liew FY.
Toll is the founder of a group of pattern recognition receptors that play a critical role in the innate immunity in Drosophila. At least 10 distinct Toll-like receptors (TLRs), recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, have now been identified in humans. Most investigations on TLRs have focused on cells of the innate system. We report here that naïve human T cells expressed high levels of cell-surface TLR2 after activation by anti-T cell receptor antibody and IFN-alpha. Activated cells produced elevated levels of cytokines in response to the TLR2 ligand, bacterial lipopeptide. Furthermore, CD4(+)CD45RO(+) memory T cells from peripheral blood constitutively expressed TLR2 and produced IFN-gamma in response to bacterial lipopeptide, which also markedly enhanced the proliferation and IFN-gamma production by CD45RO(+) T cells in the presence of IL-2 or IL-15. Thus, TLR2 serves as a costimulatory receptor for antigen-specific T cell development and participates in the maintenance of T cell memory. This suggests that pathogens, via their pathogen-associated molecular patterns, may contribute directly to the perpetuation and activation of long-term T cell memory in both antigen-dependent and independent manner.