The Human Phenotype Ontology project: linking molecular biology and disease through phenotype data.
Köhler S., Doelken SC., Mungall CJ., Bauer S., Firth HV., Bailleul-Forestier I., Black GC., Brown DL., Brudno M., Campbell J., FitzPatrick DR., Eppig JT., Jackson AP., Freson K., Girdea M., Helbig I., Hurst JA., Jähn J., Jackson LG., Kelly AM., Ledbetter DH., Mansour S., Martin CL., Moss C., Mumford A., Ouwehand WH., Park SM., Riggs ER., Scott RH., Sisodiya S., Van Vooren S., Wapner RJ., Wilkie AO., Wright CF., Vulto-van Silfhout AT., de Leeuw N., de Vries BB., Washingthon NL., Smith CL., Westerfield M., Schofield P., Ruef BJ., Gkoutos GV., Haendel M., Smedley D., Lewis SE., Robinson PN.
The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) project, available at http://www.human-phenotype-ontology.org, provides a structured, comprehensive and well-defined set of 10,088 classes (terms) describing human phenotypic abnormalities and 13,326 subclass relations between the HPO classes. In addition we have developed logical definitions for 46% of all HPO classes using terms from ontologies for anatomy, cell types, function, embryology, pathology and other domains. This allows interoperability with several resources, especially those containing phenotype information on model organisms such as mouse and zebrafish. Here we describe the updated HPO database, which provides annotations of 7,278 human hereditary syndromes listed in OMIM, Orphanet and DECIPHER to classes of the HPO. Various meta-attributes such as frequency, references and negations are associated with each annotation. Several large-scale projects worldwide utilize the HPO for describing phenotype information in their datasets. We have therefore generated equivalence mappings to other phenotype vocabularies such as LDDB, Orphanet, MedDRA, UMLS and phenoDB, allowing integration of existing datasets and interoperability with multiple biomedical resources. We have created various ways to access the HPO database content using flat files, a MySQL database, and Web-based tools. All data and documentation on the HPO project can be found online.