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OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the diagnostic performance of native T1 mapping in acute myocarditis compared with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques such as dark-blood T2-weighted (T2W)-CMR, bright-blood T2W-CMR, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of acute myocarditis on CMR often requires multiple techniques, including T2W, early gadolinium enhancement, and LGE imaging. Novel techniques such as T1 mapping and bright-blood T2W-CMR are also sensitive to changes in free water content. We hypothesized that these techniques can serve as new and potentially superior diagnostic criteria for myocarditis. METHODS: We investigated 50 patients with suspected acute myocarditis (age 42 ± 16 years; 22% women) and 45 controls (age 42 ± 14 years; 22% women). CMR at 1.5-T (median 3 days from presentation) included: 1) dark-blood T2W-CMR (short-tau inversion recovery); 2) bright-blood T2W-CMR (acquisition for cardiac unified T2 edema); 3) native T1 mapping (shortened modified look-locker inversion recovery); and 4) LGE. Image analysis included: 1) global T2 signal intensity ratio of myocardium compared with skeletal muscle; 2) myocardial T1 relaxation times; and 3) areas of LGE. RESULTS: Compared with controls, patients had significantly higher global T2 signal intensity ratios by dark-blood T2W-CMR (1.73 ± 0.27 vs. 1.56 ± 0.15, p < 0.01), bright-blood T2W-CMR (2.02 ± 0.33 vs. 1.84 ± 0.17, p < 0.01), and mean myocardial T1 (1,010 ± 65 ms vs. 941 ± 18 ms, p < 0.01). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed clear differences in diagnostic performance. The areas under the curve for each method were: T1 mapping (0.95), LGE (0.96), dark-blood T2 (0.78), and bright-blood T2 (0.76). A T1 cutoff of 990 ms had a sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of 90%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Native T1 mapping as a novel criterion for the detection of acute myocarditis showed excellent and superior diagnostic performance compared with T2W-CMR. It also has a higher sensitivity compared with T2W and LGE techniques, which may be especially useful in detecting subtle focal disease and when gadolinium contrast imaging is not feasible.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.jcmg.2013.03.008

Type

Journal article

Journal

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging

Publication Date

10/2013

Volume

6

Pages

1048 - 1058

Keywords

AUC, CMR, EGE, EMB, LGE, PPV, ROC, SI, STIR, ShMOLLI, T(1) mapping, T(2)-weighted, T(2)-weighted CMR, T2W, area under the curve, cardiac magnetic resonance, early gadolinium enhancement, endomyocardial biopsy, late gadolinium enhancement, myocarditis, positive predictive value, receiver-operating characteristic, short-tau inversion recovery, shortened modified look-locker inversion recovery, signal intensity, Acute Disease, Adult, Case-Control Studies, Contrast Media, Edema, Cardiac, England, Female, Gadolinium DTPA, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine, Male, Middle Aged, Myocarditis, Predictive Value of Tests, Prospective Studies