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OBJECTIVE: Assignment of the correct molecular diagnosis in diabetes is necessary for informed decisions regarding treatment and prognosis. Better clinical markers would facilitate discrimination and prioritization for genetic testing between diabetes subtypes. Serum 1,5 anhydroglucitol (1,5AG) levels were reported to differentiate maturity-onset diabetes of the young due to HNF1A mutations (HNF1A-MODY) from type 2 diabetes, but this requires further validation. We evaluated serum 1,5AG in a range of diabetes subtypes as an adjunct for defining diabetes etiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 1,5AG was measured in U.K. subjects with: HNF1A-MODY (n = 23), MODY due to glucokinase mutations (GCK-MODY, n = 23), type 1 diabetes (n = 29), latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA, n = 42), and type 2 diabetes (n = 206). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess discriminative accuracy of 1,5AG for diabetes etiology. RESULTS: Mean (SD range) 1,5AG levels were: GCK-MODY 13.06 microg/ml (5.74-29.74), HNF1A-MODY 4.23 microg/ml (2.12-8.44), type 1 diabetes 3.09 microg/ml (1.45-6.57), LADA 3.46 microg/ml (1.42-8.45), and type 2 diabetes 5.43 (2.12-13.23). Levels in GCK-MODY were higher than in other groups (P < 10(-4) vs. each group). HNF1A-MODY subjects showed no difference in unadjusted 1,5AG levels from type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and LADA. Adjusting for A1C revealed a difference between HNF1A-MODY and type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001). The discriminative accuracy of unadjusted 1,5AG levels was 0.79 for GCK-MODY versus type 2 diabetes and 0.86 for GCK-MODY versus HNF1A-MODY but was only 0.60 for HNF1A-MODY versus type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: In our dataset, serum 1,5AG performed well in discriminating GCK-MODY from other diabetes subtypes, particularly HNF1A-MODY. Measurement of 1,5AG levels could inform decisions regarding MODY diagnostic testing.

Original publication

DOI

10.2337/dc09-1246

Type

Journal article

Journal

Diabetes Care

Publication Date

02/2010

Volume

33

Pages

252 - 257

Keywords

Adolescent, Adult, Age of Onset, Blood Glucose, Body Mass Index, Child, Creatinine, Deoxyglucose, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glucokinase, Glucose Tolerance Test, Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated, Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha, Humans, Insulin-Secreting Cells, Mutation, Prognosis, ROC Curve, Young Adult