Light to moderate coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of death: a UK Biobank study.
Simon J., Fung K., Raisi-Estabragh Z., Aung N., Khanji MY., Kolossváry M., Merkely B., Munroe PB., Harvey NC., Piechnik SK., Neubauer S., Petersen SE., Maurovich-Horvat P.
AIMS: To study the association of daily coffee consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major CV outcomes. In a subgroup of participants who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, we evaluated the association between regular coffee intake and cardiac structure and function. METHODS: UK Biobank participants without clinically manifested heart disease at the time of recruitment were included. Regular coffee intake was categorized into 3 groups: zero, light-to-moderate (0.5-3 cups/day) and high (>3 cups/day). In the multivariate analysis, we adjusted for the main CV risk factors. RESULTS: We included 468,629 individuals (56.2 ± 8.1 years, 44.2% male), 22.1% did not consume coffee on a regular basis, 58.4% had 0.5-3 cups per day and 19.5% had >3 cups per day. Compared to non-coffee drinkers, light-to-moderate (0.5-3 cups per day) coffee drinking was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (multivariate HR = 0.88, 95%CI : 0.83-0.92; p