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Glucocorticoids increase adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, a process underpinned by the local reactivation of inactive cortisone to active cortisol within adipocytes catalyzed by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). The adrenal sex steroid precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been shown to inhibit 11β-HSD1 in murine adipocytes; however, rodent adrenals do not produce DHEA physiologically. Here, we aimed to determine the effects and underlying mechanisms of the potential antiglucocorticoid action of DHEA and its sulfate ester DHEAS in human preadipocytes. Utilizing a human subcutaneous preadipocyte cell line, Chub-S7, we examined the metabolism and effects of DHEA in human adipocytes, including adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, 11β-HSD1 expression, and activity and glucose uptake. DHEA, but not DHEAS, significantly inhibited preadipocyte proliferation via cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase independent of sex steroid and glucocorticoid receptor activation. 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity in differentiated adipocytes was inhibited by DHEA. DHEA coincubated with cortisone significantly inhibited preadipocyte differentiation, which was assessed by the expression of markers of early (LPL) and terminal (G3PDH) adipocyte differentiation. Coincubation with cortisol, negating the requirement for 11β-HSD1 oxoreductase activity, diminished the inhibitory effect of DHEA. Further consistent with glucocorticoid-opposing effects of DHEA, insulin-independent glucose uptake was significantly enhanced by DHEA treatment. DHEA increases basal glucose uptake and inhibits human preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation, thereby exerting an antiglucocorticoid action. DHEA inhibition of the amplification of glucocorticoid action mediated by 11β-HSD1 contributes to the inhibitory effect of DHEA on human preadipocyte differentiation.

Original publication

DOI

10.1152/ajpendo.00314.2012

Type

Journal article

Journal

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab

Publication Date

01/11/2013

Volume

305

Pages

E1134 - E1144

Keywords

11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, dehydroepiandrosterone, human adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1, Adipocytes, Adipogenesis, Cell Differentiation, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cultured, Colorimetry, DNA Primers, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Glucocorticoids, Glucose, Humans, RNA, Messenger, Thymidine