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We conducted a genome-wide association study to search for risk alleles associated with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), using a northern European discovery set of 835 cases and 5159 controls. A region on chromosome 12q24 was associated (P = 1.4 × 10(-7)) and replicated convincingly (P = 3.9 × 10(-5)) in 798 cases and 2931 controls [per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27 in replication cohort, P = 7.7 × 10(-11) in combined populations]. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the glypican 5 gene on chromosome 13q32 were also associated (P = 1.7 × 10(-7)) and replicated convincingly (P = 1.2 × 10(-5)) in 789 cases and 2927 controls (per allele OR = 1.31 in replication cohort, P = 3.03 × 10(-11) in combined populations). Four additional regions on chromosomes 10, 15 and 16 showed suggestive association accompanied by nominal replication. This study, the first genome-wide association study of a congenital heart malformation phenotype, provides evidence that common genetic variation influences the risk of TOF.

Original publication




Journal article


Hum Mol Genet

Publication Date





1473 - 1481


Case-Control Studies, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13, Female, Gene Frequency, Genetic Loci, Genome-Wide Association Study, Humans, Linkage Disequilibrium, Male, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Tetralogy of Fallot