Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in three Alaskan Eskimo populations: the Alaska-Siberia project.
Ebbesson SOE., Adler AI., Risica PM., Ebbesson LOE., Yeh J-L., Go OT., Doolittle W., Ehlert G., Swenson M., Robbins DC.
OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of CVD and to identify and characterize associated risk factors in three distinct Eskimo populations. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional. METHODS:A slightly modified Strong Heart Study protocol was followed to examine 454 participants, aged 25-91, from four villages. RESULTS:Overall, 6% of the participants under 55 years of age and 26% of those > or = 55 years of age showed evidence of CHD by ECG, or in patient records. The prevalence of "definite coronary heart disease" (CHD) in women with glucose intolerance (GI) was 21.0%, compared to 2.4% in those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Men had comparable values of 26.7% and 6.3%. In addition, comparable values for "possible CHD" were 29.7% vs 6.0% for women and 21.4% vs 8.0% for men. GI was associated with relatively higher prevalences of CHD in women than in men (prevalence ratio = 8.5 vs 4.3). CHD was significantly related to age, glucose intolerance and insulin. Hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with CHD only in some ethnic groups. The prevalence of current smokers was 56%. CONCLUSIONS:Recent changes in lifestyle and diet of Alaskan Eskimos, leading to obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and DM, contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.