Genetic Variants Associated with Cancer Therapy-Induced Cardiomyopathy.
Garcia-Pavia P., Kim Y., Alejandra Restrepo-Cordoba M., Lunde IG., Wakimoto H., Smith AM., Toepfer CN., Getz K., Gorham J., Patel P., Ito K., Willcox JA., Arany Z., Li J., Owens AT., Govind R., Nuñez B., Mazaika E., Bayes-Genis A., Walsh R., Finkelman B., Lupon J., Whiffin N., Serrano I., Midwinter W., Wilk A., Bardaji A., Ingold N., Buchan R., Tayal U., Pascual-Figal DA., de Marvao A., Ahmad M., Garcia-Pinilla JM., Pantazis A., Dominguez F., Baksi AJ., O'Regan DP., Rosen SD., Prasad SK., Lara-Pezzi E., Provencio M., Lyon AR., Alonso-Pulpon L., Cook SA., DePalma SR., Barton PJR., Aplenc R., Seidman JG., Ky B., Ware JS., Seidman CE.
BACKGROUND: Cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with cumulative drug exposures and pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. These parameters incompletely account for substantial inter-individual susceptibility to CCM. We hypothesized that rare variants in cardiomyopathy genes contribute to CCM. METHODS: We studied 213 CCM patients from three cohorts: retrospectively recruited adults with diverse cancers (n=99), prospectively phenotyped breast cancer adults (n=73) and prospectively phenotyped children with acute myeloid leukemia (n=41). Cardiomyopathy genes, including nine pre-specified genes were sequenced. The prevalence of rare variants was compared between CCM cohorts and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) participants (n=2053), healthy volunteers (n=445), and ancestry-matched reference population. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were assessed, stratified by genotypes. A prevalent CCM genotype was modeled in anthracycline-treated mice. RESULTS: CCM was diagnosed 0.4-9 years after chemotherapy; 90% of these patients received anthracyclines. Adult CCM patients had cardiovascular risk factors similar to the U.S. POPULATION: Among nine prioritized genes CCM patients had more rare protein-altering variants than comparative cohorts (p≤1.98e-04). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) predominated, occurring in 7.5% CCM patients versus 1.1% TCGA participants (p=7.36e-08), 0.7% healthy volunteers (p=3.42e-06), and 0.6% reference population (p=5.87e-14). Adult CCM patients with TTNtv experienced more heart failure and atrial fibrillation (p=0.003) and impaired myocardial recovery (p=0.03) than those without. Consistent with human data, anthracycline-treated TTNtv mice and isolated TTNtv cardiomyocytes showed sustained contractile dysfunction unlike wildtype (p=0.0004 and p<0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Unrecognized rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes, particularly TTNtv, increased the risk for CCM in children and adults, and adverse cardiac events in adults. Genotype, along with cumulative chemotherapy dosage and traditional cardiovascular risk factors improves identification of cancer patients at highest risk for CCM. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01173341; AAML1031; NCT01371981.