Inhibition of dendritic cell maturation by herpes simplex virus.
Salio M., Cella M., Suter M., Lanzavecchia A.
Maturation of dendritic cells (DC), leading to migration and increased T cell stimulatory capacity, is essential for the initiation of immune responses. This process is triggered by a variety of stimuli, such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial and viral products. Using a recombinant disabled infectious single cycle herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encoding green fluorescent protein, we show that the infected DC are defective in up-regulating co-stimulatory molecules, do not produce cytokines, and do not acquire responsiveness to chemokines required for migration to secondary lymphoid organs. These results reveal yet another strategy used by HSV-1 to evade the immune response, namely the inhibition of signaling pathways involved in DC maturation.