Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the addition of carotid endarterectomy to aggressive medical management can reduce the incidence of cerebral infarction in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. SETTING: Thirty-nine clinical sites across the United States and Canada. PATIENTS: Between December 1987 and December 1993, a total of 1662 patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of 60% or greater reduction in diameter were randomized; follow-up data are available on 1659. At baseline, recognized risk factors for stroke were similar between the two treatment groups. INTERVENTION: Daily aspirin administration and medical risk factor management for all patients; carotid endarterectomy for patients randomized to receive surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initially, transient ischemic attack or cerebral infarction occurring in the distribution of the study artery and any transient ischemic attack, stroke, or death occurring in the perioperative period. In March 1993, the primary outcome measures were changed to cerebral infarction occurring in the distribution of the study artery or any stroke or death occurring in the perioperative period. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 2.7 years, with 4657 patient-years of observation, the aggregate risk over 5 years for ipsilateral stroke and any perioperative stroke or death was estimated to be 5.1% for surgical patients and 11.0% for patients treated medically (aggregate risk reduction of 53% [95% confidence interval, 22% to 72%]). CONCLUSION: Patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of 60% or greater reduction in diameter and whose general health makes them good candidates for elective surgery will have a reduced 5-year risk of ipsilateral stroke if carotid endarterectomy performed with less than 3% perioperative morbidity and mortality is added to aggressive management of modifiable risk factors.