Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Globally, about 36.7 million people were living with HIV infection at the end of 2015. The most frequent infection co-occurring with HIV-1 is Mycobacterium tuberculosis-374,000 deaths per annum are attributable to HIV-tuberculosis, 75% of those occurring in Africa. HIV-1 infection increases the risk of tuberculosis by a factor of up to 26 and alters its clinical presentation, complicates diagnosis and treatment, and worsens outcome. Although HIV-1-induced depletion of CD4+ T cells underlies all these effects, more widespread immune deficits also contribute to susceptibility and pathogenesis. These defects present a challenge to understand and ameliorate, but also an opportunity to learn and optimize mechanisms that normally protect people against tuberculosis. The most effective means to prevent and ameliorate tuberculosis in HIV-1-infected people is antiretroviral therapy, but this may be complicated by pathological immune deterioration that in turn requires more effective host-directed anti-inflammatory therapies to be derived.

Original publication




Journal article


Annu Rev Immunol

Publication Date





603 - 638


HIV-1 infection, drug therapy, immune response, pathogenesis, tuberculosis