The use of lentiviral vectors for therapeutic purposes has shown promising results in clinical trials. The ability to produce a clinical-grade vector at high yields remains a critical issue. One possible obstacle could be cellular factors known to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To date, five HIV restriction factors have been identified, although it is likely that more factors are involved in the complex HIV-cell interaction. Inhibitory factors that have an adverse effect but do not abolish virus production are much less well described. Therefore, a gap exists in the knowledge of inhibitory factors acting late in the HIV life cycle (from transcription to infection of a new cell), which are relevant to the lentiviral vector production process. The objective was to review the HIV literature to identify cellular factors previously implicated as inhibitors of the late stages of lentivirus production. A search for publications was conducted on MEDLINE via the PubMed interface, using the keyword sequence "HIV restriction factor" or "HIV restriction" or "inhibit HIV" or "repress HIV" or "restrict HIV" or "suppress HIV" or "block HIV," with a publication date up to 31 December 2016. Cited papers from the identified records were investigated, and additional database searches were performed. A total of 260 candidate inhibitory factors were identified. These factors have been identified in the literature as having a negative impact on HIV replication. This study identified hundreds of candidate inhibitory factors for which the impact of modulating their expression in lentiviral vector production could be beneficial.
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev
cell-mediated immunity, host resistance, human immunodeficiency virus, immunology, infection control, viral immunity, virology, virulence regulation, virus-host interactions, Clinical Trials as Topic, DNA Replication, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene Transfer Techniques, Genetic Vectors, HIV Infections, HIV-1, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Immunity, Cellular, Lentivirus, Virus Replication