Contrast mechanisms associated with neuromelanin-MRI.
Trujillo P., Summers PE., Ferrari E., Zucca FA., Sturini M., Mainardi LT., Cerutti S., Smith AK., Smith SA., Zecca L., Costa A.
PURPOSE: To investigate the physical mechanisms associated with the contrast observed in neuromelanin MRI. METHODS: Phantoms having different concentrations of synthetic melanins with different degrees of iron loading were examined on a 3 Tesla scanner using relaxometry and quantitative magnetization transfer (MT). RESULTS: Concentration-dependent T1 and T2 shortening was most pronounced for the melanin pigment when combined with iron. Metal-free melanin had a negligible effect on the magnetization transfer spectra. On the contrary, the presence of iron-laden melanins resulted in a decreased magnetization transfer ratio. The presence of melanin or iron (or both) did not have a significant effect on the macromolecular content, represented by the pool size ratio. CONCLUSION: The primary mechanism underlying contrast in neuromelanin-MRI appears to be the T1 reduction associated with melanin-iron complexes. The macromolecular content is not significantly influenced by the presence of melanin with or without iron, and thus the MT is not directly affected. However, as T1 plays a role in determining the MT-weighted signal, the magnetization transfer ratio is reduced in the presence of melanin-iron complexes. Magn Reson Med, 2016. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.