BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are protein-lipid complexes released from cells, as well as actively exocytosed, as part of normal physiology, but also during pathological processes such as those occurring during a stroke. Our aim was to determine the inflammatory potential of stroke EVs. METHODS: EVs were quantified and analyzed in the sera of patients after an acute stroke (<24 hours; OXVASC [Oxford Vascular Study]). Isolated EV fractions were subjected to untargeted proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry/mass-spectrometry and then applied to macrophages in culture to investigate inflammatory gene expression. RESULTS: EV number, but not size, is significantly increased in stroke patients when compared to age-matched controls. Proteomic analysis reveals an overall increase in acute phase proteins, including C-reactive protein. EV fractions applied to monocyte-differentiated macrophage cultures induced inflammatory gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Together these data show that EVs from stroke patients are proinflammatory in nature and are capable of inducing inflammation in immune cells.
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C-reactive protein, acute-phase proteins, extracellular vesicles, macrophages, stroke, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Cohort Studies, England, Extracellular Vesicles, Female, Humans, Inflammation, Inflammation Mediators, Macrophage Activation, Macrophages, Male, Population Surveillance, Stroke