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The rising prevalences of type 2 diabetes and obesity constitute major threats to human health globally. Powerful social and economic factors influence the distribution of these diseases among and within populations. These factors act on a substrate of individual predisposition derived from the composite effects of inherited DNA variation and a range of environmental exposures experienced throughout the life course. Although "Western" lifestyle represents a convenient catch-all culprit for such exposures, effective treatment and prevention will be informed by characterization of the most critical, causal environmental factors. In this Review, we examine how burgeoning understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes and obesity can highlight nongenetic exposures that drive development of these conditions.

Original publication

DOI

10.1126/science.aaf5094

Type

Journal article

Journal

Science

Volume

354

Pages

69 - 73

Keywords

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diet, Energy Metabolism, Environmental Exposure, Gene-Environment Interaction, Humans, Life Style, Microbiota, Obesity