Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Inherited haemoglobin disorders, including thalassaemia and sickle-cell disease, are the most common monogenic diseases worldwide. Several clinical forms of α-thalassaemia and β-thalassaemia, including the co-inheritance of β-thalassaemia with haemoglobin E resulting in haemoglobin E/β-thalassaemia, have been described. The disease hallmarks include imbalance in the α/β-globin chain ratio, ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic haemolytic anaemia, compensatory haemopoietic expansion, hypercoagulability, and increased intestinal iron absorption. The complications of iron overload, arising from transfusions that represent the basis of disease management in most patients with severe thalassaemia, might further complicate the clinical phenotype. These pathophysiological mechanisms lead to an array of clinical manifestations involving numerous organ systems. Conventional management primarily relies on transfusion and iron-chelation therapy, as well as splenectomy in specific cases. An increased understanding of the molecular and pathogenic factors that govern the disease process have suggested routes for the development of new therapeutic approaches that address the underlying chain imbalance, ineffective erythropoiesis, and iron dysregulation, with several agents being evaluated in preclinical models and clinical trials.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





155 - 167


Humans, Thalassemia