Accelerated atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed Western diets containing palm oil compared with extra virgin olive oils: a role for small, dense high-density lipoproteins.
Arbonés-Mainar JM., Navarro MA., Carnicer R., Guillén N., Surra JC., Acín S., Guzmán MA., Sarría AJ., Arnal C., Aguilera M-P., Jiménez A., Beltrán G., Uceda M., Osada J.
To test the hypothesis that extra virgin olive oils from different cultivars added to Western diets might behave differently than palm oil in the development of atherosclerosis, apoE-deficient mice were fed diets containing different cultivars of olive oil for 10 weeks. Female mice were assigned randomly to one of the following five groups: (1-4) fed chow diets supplemented with 0.15% (w/w) cholesterol and 20% (w/w) extra virgin olive oil from the Arbequina, Picual, Cornicabra, or Empeltre cultivars, and (5) fed a chow diet supplemented with 0.15% cholesterol and 20% palm oil. Compared to diets containing palm oil, a Western diet supplemented with one of several varieties of extra virgin olive oil decreased atherosclerosis lesions, reduced plaque size, and decreased macrophage recruitment. Unexpectedly, total plasma paraoxonase activity, apoA-I, plasma triglycerides, and cholesterol played minor roles in the regulation of differential aortic lesion development. Extra virgin olive oil induced a cholesterol-poor, apoA-IV-enriched lipoparticle that has enhanced arylesterase and antioxidant activities, which is closely associated with reductions in atherosclerotic lesions. Given the anti-atherogenic properties of extra virgin olive oil evident in animal models fed a Western diet, clinical trials are needed to establish whether these oils are a safe and effective means of treating atherosclerosis.