Interleukin 13: novel role in direct regulation of proliferation and differentiation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Jacobsen SE., Okkenhaug C., Veiby OP., Caput D., Ferrara P., Minty A.
The recently cloned interleukin 13 (IL-13) shares most investigated biological activities on B lymphocytes and monocytes with IL-4. In this study we investigated for the first time the potential role of IL-13 in the regulation of the growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells. IL-13 enhanced stem cell factor (SCF)-induced proliferation of Lin-Sca-1+ bone marrow progenitor cells more potently than IL-4. The effect of IL-13 was purely synergistic, since IL-13 alone stimulated no colony formation. Single cell experiments suggested that the synergistic effect of IL-13 on Lin-Sca-1+ progenitors was directly mediated. In contrast, IL-13 had no synergistic activity on SCF-induced proliferation of the more mature Lin-Sca-1- progenitor cells. Thus, the cloning frequency in response to SCF + IL-13 was at least 20-fold higher in the Lin-Sca-1+ than the Lin-Sca-1- progenitor cell population. Furthermore, IL-13 but not IL-4 synergistically enhanced colony formation of Lin-Sca-1+ progenitors in response to granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (threefold), whereas both IL-4 and IL-13 enhanced G-CSF-induced colony formation (threefold), and neither of the two significantly affected CSF-1 and IL-3-induced proliferation. Finally, whereas stimulation of Lin-Sca-1+ progenitors by SCF + G-CSF resulted in the formation of 90% granulocytes, the addition of IL-13 resulted in the production of macrophages exclusively. This novel effect on differentiation was directly mediated, shared with IL-4, and could not be observed on Lin-Sca-1- progenitor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate a novel role of IL-13 in early myelopoiesis, partially overlapping but also different from that of IL-4.