Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.
Skip to main content

Despite the vast amount of evidence on the benefits of blood pressure lowering accumulated to date, elevated blood pressure is still the leading risk factor for disease and disability worldwide. The purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiological evidence underpinning the association between blood pressure and a range of conditions. This review focuses on the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Evidence for and against the existence of a J-shaped curve association between blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, and differences in the predictive power of systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure, are described. In addition, global and regional trends in blood pressure levels and management of hypertension are reviewed.

Original publication




Journal article


Circ Res

Publication Date





925 - 936


blood pressure, epidemiology, hypertension, hypertension management, Aging, Antihypertensive Agents, Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cohort Studies, Comorbidity, Developed Countries, Developing Countries, Diastole, Disease Management, Global Health, Healthcare Disparities, Humans, Hypertension, Income, Kidney Diseases, Meta-Analysis as Topic, Risk Factors, Systole