Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Exendin-4, a 39-amino acid (AA) peptide, is a long-acting agonist at the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. Consequently, it may be preferable to GLP-1 as a long-term treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exendin-4 (Ex-4), unlike GLP-1, is not degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), is less susceptible to degradation by neutral endopeptidase, and possesses a nine-AA C-terminal sequence absent from GLP-1. Here we examine the importance of these nine AAs for biological activity of Ex-4, a sequence of truncated Ex-4 analogs, and native GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs to which all or parts of the C-terminal sequence have been added. We found that removing these AAs from Ex-4 to produce Ex (1-30) reduced the affinity for the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) relative to Ex-4 (IC50: Ex-4, 3.22+/-0.9 nM; Ex (1-30), 32+/-5.8 nM) but made it comparable to that of GLP-1 (IC50: 44.9+/-3.2 nM). The addition of this nine-AA sequence to GLP-1 improved the affinity of both GLP-1 and the DPP IV resistant analog GLP-1 8-glycine for the GLP-1 receptor (IC50: GLP-1 Gly8 [GG], 220+/-23 nM; GLP-1 Gly8 Ex (31-39), 74+/-11 nM). Observations of the cAMP response in an insulinoma cell line show a similar trend for biological activity.


Journal article


Regul Pept

Publication Date





153 - 158


Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Binding, Competitive, CHO Cells, Cell Line, Cricetinae, Exenatide, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor, Insulin, Insulin Secretion, Molecular Sequence Data, Peptides, Receptors, Glucagon, Venoms