Type 2 diabetes
Zeggini E., McCarthy MI.
© Oxford University Press, 2014. This chapter discusses the genetics of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D represents one of the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality. On current projections, the prevalence of this condition will double within a generation, with most of this increase occurring in the countries least well equipped to deal with the social and economic consequences. These rapid changes in prevalence clearly reflect global shifts in lifestyle (greater caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure) that are closely linked to rising rates of obesity. Nevertheless, twin and family studies have repeatedly demonstrated that individual predisposition to T2D has a substantial genetic component. Identification of the genes and variants responsible for these predisposition effects provides valuable insights into pathogenesis; these should, in turn, spur translational advances in clinical care, including the development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. In addition, it may well become increasingly possible to use personal genetic profile information as a means toward more targeted, individualized clinical management.