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beta-Cell tropin, the pituitary peptide ACTH22-39, is a potent insulin secretagogue and stimulates lipogenesis in adipose tissue in rodents. Plasma beta-cell tropin was measured fasting and after glucose infusion (5 mg.kg glucose ideal body weight-1.min0-1 for 90 min) in 10 mild diet-treated non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetic subjects and 10 control subjects (body mass index) (BMI): 26.4 +/- 3.2 and 24.1 +/- 2.0 kg/m-2, NS, fasting plasma glucose 7.8 +/- 2.7 mM and 4.7 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively). The diabetic subjects had raised fasting plasma beta-cell tropin compared with the normal subjects (geometric mean (1 SD range): 0.49 (0.25-0.96) nM and 0.17 (0.10-0.28) nM, respectively, P = 0.007). In response to the glucose infusion, plasma glucose rose higher in the diabetic subjects (mean +/- 1 SD: 13.7 +/- 3.1 and 9.6 +/- 0.9 mM, P = 0.007) and plasma insulin was impaired in the diabetic compared with the nondiabetic subjects (geometric mean (1 SD range): 14 (8-26) and 34 (18-63), P less than 0.01). beta-Cell tropin concentrations in the diabetic subjects rose to 1.31 (0.74-2.30) nM (P = 0.007), whereas beta-cell tropin did not change in the normal subjects at 0.19 (0.11-0.91) nM. There was no overlap between glucose-stimulated plasma beta-cell tropin in the two groups (P = 0.0002). Pituitary-adrenal function, as assessed by plasma cortisol, did not differ between the two groups when fasting and did not change after the glucose infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Type

Journal article

Journal

Diabetes

Publication Date

09/1992

Volume

41

Pages

1160 - 1164

Keywords

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, Adult, Blood Glucose, Body Mass Index, Body Weight, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diet, Diabetic, Female, Glucose, Humans, Hydrocortisone, Infusions, Intravenous, Insulin, Islets of Langerhans, Male, Middle Aged, Peptide Fragments