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Background: Patterns of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion are less well understood for children than adults. This study was undertaken to document current pediatric practice, to identify specific areas for improving patient care and safety. Study Design and Methods: All UK hospitals were invited to participate. All children less than 18 years old admitted and receiving a RBC transfusion during a 3-month period in 2009 were eligible for inclusion. Results: A total of 160 of 247 (65%) sites treating children or neonates responded; 119 provided data on 1302 pediatric patients transfused in nonneonatal wards. A total of 74% of patients received a single RBC transfusion during their admission. More than half (53%) of recipients had a hematologic or oncologic underlying diagnosis, and 33% were on general pediatric wards. The median pretransfusion hemoglobin (Hb) level was 7.9g/dL (interquartile range [IQR], 6.9-9.4g/dL), varying by location and diagnosis. The median volume prescribed was 15mL/kg (IQR, 11.8-19.2mL/kg). Prescribing by units instead of milliliters was recorded for 493 of 1264 (39%) of transfusions. For 734 of 1302 (56%) where Hb levels were available within 2 days between pre- and posttransfusion Hb, the median transfusion increment was 2.8g/dL (IQR, 1.4-3.9g/dL). Conclusion: This study of UK pediatric RBC transfusion practice has demonstrated significant variation in pretransfusion Hb, frequent prescribing in units rather than milliliters, and a high proportion of single transfusions during admissions. Future education and research should target transfusion triggers and prescription volumes for children in all clinical areas. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

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