Monitoring of Individual Needs in Diabetes (MIND)-2: follow-up data from the cross-national Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes, and Needs (DAWN) MIND study.
Snoek FJ., Kersch NYA., Eldrup E., Harman-Boehm I., Hermanns N., Kokoszka A., Matthews DR., McGuire BE., Pibernik-Okanović M., Singer J., de Wit M., Skovlund SE.
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of implementing computer-assisted Monitoring of Individual Needs in Diabetes (MIND) in routine diabetes care on psychological status and glycemic control, identify predictors of poor psychological outcomes, and evaluate care providers' experiences. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The MIND procedure was implemented as part of the annual review in diabetes clinics across eight countries in a prospective observational study with a 1-year follow-up. MIND encompasses well-being (World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index [WHO-5]), diabetes-related distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes [PAID]), a Life Event Inventory, and the patient's agenda for their consultation. Medical data and agreed case-management actions were retrieved from the charts. RESULTS: Of the total 1,567 patients, 891 patients (57%) were monitored at a 1-year follow-up. Twenty-eight percent of the patients screened positive for depression and/or diabetes distress at baseline and considered cases, 17% of whom were receiving psychological care. Cases were significantly more often female and had type 2 diabetes and worse glycemic control compared with noncases. Clinically relevant improvements in WHO-5 and PAID were observed over time in cases, irrespective of referral (effects sizes 0.59 and 0.48, respectively; P < 0.0001). Glycemic control did not change. Female sex, life events, and concomitant chronic diseases were predictors of poor psychological outcomes. MIND was well received by patients and staff. CONCLUSIONS: MIND appears suitable for screening and discussion of emotional distress as part of the annual review. Broader dissemination in diabetes care is recommendable, but sustainability will depend on reimbursement and availability of support services.