The detection of subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements in idiopathic mental retardation.
Flint J., Wilkie AO., Buckle VJ., Winter RM., Holland AJ., McDermid HE.
A major challenge for human genetics is to identify new causes of mental retardation, which, although present in about 3% of individuals, is unexplained in more than half of all cases. We have developed a strategy to screen for the abnormal inheritance of subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms in individuals with mental retardation and have detected three abnormalities in 99 patients with normal routine karyotypes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and reverse chromosome painting showed that one case arose from an interstitial or terminal deletion and two from the de novo inheritance of derivative translocation chromosomes. At least 6% of unexplained mental retardation is accounted for by these relatively small chromosomal abnormalities, which will be an important resource in the characterization of the genetic basis of neurodevelopment.