Masking of diabetic phenotype on a low-energy diet despite persistence of impaired insulin response.
Levy JC., Ward GM., Naylor BA., Williamson DH., Turner RC.
Type 2 diabetes has been postulated to be a "thrifty genotype" that aids fuel conservation; to investigate this hypothesis, type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, normal weight and obese, were studied after both 6 days on a 700-calorie diet and 6 days on a 2,800-calorie diet. On 2,800 calories per day, the median basal plasma glucose was raised in diabetics compared with nondiabetic subjects (median, 5.5 and 4.5 mmol/L, respectively; P = .003), but on the low-energy diet there was no difference (4.1 and 3.7 mmol/L, respectively; P greater than .05). Basal plasma insulin levels were similar in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects and were twofold to threefold higher on the high- than low-energy diet in both diabetic (median, 7.8 and 3.1 mU/L on high- and low-energy diets, respectively; P = .007) and nondiabetic subjects (6.8 and 2.6 mU/L, respectively; P = .005). Similarly, the postprandial insulin concentrations increased to the same degree on the high- compared with the low-energy diet in diabetic (median postprandial increment, 14.9 and 3.4 mU/L; P = .005) and nondiabetic patients (9.5 and 3.0 mU/L; P = .005) and the beta cells in type 2 diabetes appeared to modulate normally to different calorie intakes. On both diets, the diabetic subjects had an impaired first-phase insulin response to an intravenous glucose load compared with nondiabetic subjects (high-energy diet median first-phase increment, 4.3 and 21.2 mU/L in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, P = .0007; low-energy diet, 4.0 and 20.4 mU/L, respectively, P = .003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)