Long-term persistence of primary genotypic resistance after HIV-1 seroconversion.
Pao D., Andrady U., Clarke J., Dean G., Drake S., Fisher M., Green T., Kumar S., Murphy M., Tang A., Taylor S., White D., Underhill G., Pillay D., Cane P.
Primary infection with drug-resistant HIV-1 is well documented. We have followed up patients infected with such viruses to determine the stability of resistance-associated mutations. Fourteen patients who experienced primary infection with genotypic evidence of resistance were followed for up to 3 years. Drug resistance-associated mutations persisted over time in most patients studied. In particular, M41L, T69N, K103N, and T215 variants within reverse transcriptase (RT) and multidrug resistance demonstrated little reversion to wild-type virus. By contrast, Y181C and K219Q in RT, occurring alone, disappeared within 25 and 9 months, respectively. Multidrug resistance in 2 patients was found to be stable for up to 18 months, the maximum period studied. We conclude that certain resistance-associated mutations are highly stable and these data support the recommendation that all new HIV diagnoses in areas where primary resistance may occur should undergo genotyping irrespective of whether the date of seroconversion is known.