Parallel changes of proinsulin and islet amyloid polypeptide in glucose intolerance.
MacNamara CM., Barrow BA., Manley SE., Levy JC., Clark A., Turner RC.
Elevated proinsulin secretion and islet amyloid deposition are both features of Type 2 diabetes but their relationship to beta-cell dysfunction is unknown. To determine if islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) secretion is disproportionate with other beta-cell products at any stage of glucose intolerance, 116 subjects were studied. Non-diabetic subjects with equivalent body mass index (BMI) were assigned to three groups, (i) normal fasting glucose, fpg<5.5 mmol l(-1); (ii) intermediate fasting glucose, fpg> or =5.5<6.15 mmol l(-1); (iii) impaired fasting glucose (IFG), fpg> or =6.1<7.0 mmol l(-1). Diabetic subjects were divided according to therapy (9 diet, 19 tablet, and 11 insulin). IAPP, C-peptide and proinsulin were measured fasting and at the end of a 1-h glucose infusion. Fasting C-peptide, IAPP and proinsulin were significantly elevated in the IFG group compared with the other non-diabetic groups (P<0.02); fasting IAPP/C-peptide and proinsulin/C-peptide were 1-2% in all non-diabetic groups. Fasting and 1-h proinsulin and proinsulin/C-peptide were higher in diabetic compared with non-diabetic subjects (P<0.01). IAPP and IAPP/C-peptide in diabetic groups were similar to that in non-diabetic subjects but reduced in the insulin-treated group (P<0.01). Proinsulin was disproportionately increased compared with C-peptide and IAPP in Type 2 diabetes particularly in severe beta-cell failure implying more than one concurrent beta-cell pathology.