Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by a novel homozygous (T168A) glucokinase (GCK) mutation: initial response to oral sulphonylurea therapy.
Turkkahraman D., Bircan I., Tribble ND., Akçurin S., Ellard S., Gloyn AL.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical response to sulphonylurea treatment in a child with a homozygous T168A GCK (glucokinase) mutation, causing permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). STUDY DESIGN: Oral glibenclamide was given for 3 months. Pancreatic beta cell function was assessed by a glucagon stimulation test. Mutant and wild-type (WT) GCK were characterized. RESULTS: Sulphonylurea treatment resulted in a 12-fold increase in basal and stimulated C-peptide levels. HbA1c levels were reduced from 9.4% to 8.1% on a reduced insulin dose (0.85 to 0.60 U/kg/day). Mutant T168A-GST-GCK showed reduced kinetic activity (0.02 fold) compared to WT. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphonylureas can close the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel and elicit insulin secretion, but the ATP generated from metabolism is insufficient to fully restore insulin secretory capacity. Nonetheless, sulphonylurea treatment should be tried in patients with GCK-PNDM, particularly those with mutations resulting in less severe kinetic defects, in whom improved glycemic control may be obtained with lower doses of insulin.