Nitric Oxide Releasing Nanomaterials for Cardiovascular Applications
Tabish TA., Crabtree MJ., Townley HE., Winyard PG., Lygate CA.
A central paradigm of cardiovascular homeostasis is that impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability results in a wide array of cardiovascular dysfunction including incompetent endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, thrombosis, vascular inflammation, and proliferation of the intima. Over the course of more than a century, NO donating formulations such as organic nitrates and nitrites have remained a cornerstone of treatment for patients with cardiovascular diseases. These donors primarily produce NO in the circulation and are not targeted to specific (sub)cellular sites of action. However, safe, and therapeutic levels of NO require delivery of the right amount to a precise location at the right time. To achieve these aims, several recent strategies aimed at therapeutically generating or releasing NO in living systems have shown that polymeric and inorganic (silica, gold) nanoparticles and nanoscale metal-organic frameworks could either generate NO endogenously by the catalytic decomposition of endogenous NO substrates or can store and release therapeutically relevant amounts of NO gas. NO-releasing nanomaterials have been developed for vascular implants (such as stents and grafts) to target atherosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiac tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the advances in design and development of novel NO-releasing nanomaterials for cardiovascular therapeutics and critically examine the therapeutic potential of these nanoplatforms to modulate cellular metabolism, to regulate vascular tone, inhibit platelet aggregation, and limit proliferation of vascular smooth muscle with minimal toxic effects.