Oxidation state-dependent protein-protein interactions in disulfide cascades.
Mavridou DA., Saridakis E., Kritsiligkou P., Goddard AD., Stevens JM., Ferguson SJ., Redfield C.
Bacterial growth and pathogenicity depend on the correct formation of disulfide bonds, a process controlled by the Dsb system in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. Proteins with a thioredoxin fold play a central role in this process. A general feature of thiol-disulfide exchange reactions is the need to avoid a long lived product complex between protein partners. We use a multidisciplinary approach, involving NMR, x-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, mutagenesis, and in vivo experiments, to investigate the interaction between the two soluble domains of the transmembrane reductant conductor DsbD. Our results show oxidation state-dependent affinities between these two domains. These observations have implications for the interactions of the ubiquitous thioredoxin-like proteins with their substrates, provide insight into the key role played by a unique redox partner with an immunoglobulin fold, and are of general importance for oxidative protein-folding pathways in all organisms.