BACKGROUND: Patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) typically incur high rates of infections and both drugs and comorbidities may modulate infection risk. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to assess the effect of immunosuppressive agents on clinical outcomes of MPN patients affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: This is an observational study. METHODS: We specifically searched and analyzed MPN patients collected by EPICOVIDEHA online registry, which includes individuals with hematological malignancies diagnosed with COVID-19 since February 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 398 patients with MPN were observed for a median of 76 days [interquartile range (IQR): 19-197] after detection of SARS-CoV2 infection. Median age was 69 years (IQR: 58-77) and 183 individuals (46%) had myelofibrosis (MF). Overall, 121 patients (30%) of the whole cohort received immunosuppressive therapies including steroids, immunomodulatory drugs, or JAK inhibitors. Hospitalization and consecutive admission to intensive care unit was required in 216 (54%) and 53 patients (13%), respectively. Risk factors for hospital admission were identified by multivariable logistic regression and include exposure to immunosuppressive therapies [odds ratio (OR): 2.186; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.357-3.519], age ⩾70 years, and comorbidities. The fatality rate was 22% overall and the risk of death was independently increased by age ⩾70 years [hazard ratio (HR): 2.191; 95% CI: 1.363-3.521], previous comorbidities, and exposure to immunosuppressive therapies before the infection (HR: 2.143; 95% CI: 1.363-3.521). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection led to a particularly dismal outcome in MPN patients receiving immunosuppressive agents or reporting multiple comorbidities. Therefore, specific preventive strategies need to be tailored for such individuals. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: EPICOVIDEHA registry reports inferior outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms receiving immunosuppressive therapies. Patients with Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) incur high rates of infections during the course of their disease.The present study was aimed at assessing which patient characteristics predicted a worse outcome of SARS-COV-2 infection in individuals with MPN.To pursue this objective, the researchers analyzed the data collected by EPICOVIDEHA, an international online registry, which includes individuals with hematological malignancies diagnosed with COVID-19 since February 2020.The database provided clinical data of 398 patients with MPN incurring COVID-19:Patients were mostly elderly (median age was 69 years);Forty-six percent of them were affected by myelofibrosis, which is the most severe MPN;Moreover, 32% were receiving immunosuppressive therapies (JAK inhibitors, such as ruxolitinib, steroids, or immunomodulatory IMID drugs, such as thalidomide) before COVID-19.Hospitalization was required in 54% of the patients, and the risk of being hospitalized for severe COVID-19 was independently predicted byOlder age;Comorbidities;Exposure to immunosuppressive therapies.Overall, 22% of MPN patients deceased soon after COVID-19 and the risk of death was independently increased over twofold byOlder age;Comorbidities;Exposure to immunosuppressive therapies before the infection.In conclusion, COVID-19 infection led to a particularly dismal outcome in MPN patients receiving immunosuppressive agents, including JAK inhibitors, or reporting multiple comorbidities. Therefore, specific preventive strategies need to be tailored for such individuals.
Ther Adv Hematol
COVID-19, Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, SARS-CoV-2, essential thrombocytemia, hydroxyurea, myelofibrosis, polycythemia vera, ruxolitinib