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Aims/introductionA dietary supplementation product enriched with glutamine, dietary fiber and oligosaccharide (GFO) is widely applied for enteral nutrition support in Japan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GFO ingestion on secretion of incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2).Materials and methodsWe carried out a cross-over study involving 20 healthy Japanese volunteers. The participants received GFO or 17 g of glucose, the equivalent carbohydrate in GFO as the control. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, and plasma total GIP, total GLP-1 and total GLP-2 levels during GFO or glucose loading were determined.ResultsGFO loading produced significantly higher plasma GLP-1 levels at 30 min and 60 min, area under the curve-GLP-1 value, and area under the curve-GLP-2 value after administration compared with those by glucose loading. In contrast, plasma GIP levels at both 30 and 60 min, and area under the curve-GIP value after glucose loading were significantly higher than those after GFO loading.ConclusionsThese results show that GFO ingestion stimulates GLP-1 and GLP-2 secretion, and reduces GIP secretion compared with glucose ingestion. Therefore, GFO could have an intestinotrophic effect as well as an ameliorating effect on metabolic disorders through modification of release of gut hormones.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of diabetes investigation

Publication Date





302 - 308


Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan.