Update on Kleefstra syndrome
Willemsen MH., Vulto-Van Silfhout AT., Nillesen WM., Wissink-Lindhout WM., Van Bokhoven H., Philip N., Berry-Kravis EM., Kini U., Van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA., Delle Chiaie B., Innes AMM., Houge G., Kosonen T., Cremer K., Fannemel M., Stray-Pedersen A., Reardon W., Ignatius J., Lachlan K., Mircher C., Helderman Van Den Enden PTJM., Mastebroek M., Cohn-Hokke PE., Yntema HG., Drunat S., Kleefstra T.
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by the core phenotype of developmental delay/intellectual disability, (childhood) hypotonia and distinct facial features. The syndrome can be either caused by a microdeletion in chromosomal region 9q34.3 or by a mutation in the euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene. Since the early 1990s, 85 patients have been described, of which the majority had a 9q34.3 microdeletion (>85%). So far, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation could be observed by studying the clinical and molecular features of both 9q34.3 microdeletion patients and patients with an intragenic EHMT1 mutation. Thus, to further expand the genotypic and phenotypic knowledge about the syndrome, we here report 29 newly diagnosed patients, including 16 patients with a 9q34.3 microdeletion and 13 patients with an EHMT1 mutation, and review previous literature. The present findings are comparable to previous reports. In addition to our former findings and recommendations, we suggest cardiac screening during follow-up, because of the possible occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, clinicians and caretakers should be aware of the regressive behavioral phenotype that might develop at adolescent/adult age and seems to have no clear neurological substrate, but is rather a so far unexplained neuropsychiatric feature. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.