Protein biomarkers of cardiac remodeling and inflammation associated with HFpEF and incident events.
Regan JA., Truby LK., Tahir UA., Katz DH., Nguyen M., Kwee LC., Deng S., Wilson JG., Mentz RJ., Kraus WE., Hernandez AF., Gerszten RE., Peterson ED., Holman RR., Shah SH.
There is increasing evidence that HFpEF is a heterogeneous clinical entity and distinct molecular pathways may contribute to pathophysiology. Leveraging unbiased proteomics to identify novel biomarkers, this study seeks to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of HFpEF. The discovery cohort consisted of HFpEF cases and non-HF controls from the CATHGEN study (N = 176); the validation cohort consisted of participants from the TECOS trial of patients with diabetes (N = 109). Proteins associated with HFpEF were included in a LASSO model to create a discriminative multi-protein model and assessed in the validation cohort. Survival models and meta-analysis were used to test the association of proteins with incident clinical outcomes, including HF hospitalization, mortality and HFpEF hospitalization in CATHGEN, TECOS and the Jackson Heart Study. In the derivation set, 190 proteins were associated with HFpEF in univariate analysis, of which 65 remained significant in the multivariate model. Twenty (30.8%) of these proteins validated in TECOS, including LCN2, U-PAR, IL-1ra, KIM1, CSTB and Gal-9 (OR 1.93-2.77, p