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BackgroundEvidence on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) is limited. We aimed to identify the risk of composite CVD, individual CVD events, and common risk factors.MethodsThis was a nationwide, population-based, cohort study comparing adult (≥18 years old) PWH with people without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) matched on age, sex, ethnicity, and location. The primary outcome was composite CVD comprising stroke, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. The secondary outcomes were individual CVD events, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the risk of each outcome.ResultsWe identified 9233 PWH and matched them with 35 721 HIV-negative individuals. An increased risk was found for composite CVD (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.77), stroke (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.86), ischemic heart disease (aHR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.24-1.94), hypertension (aHR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.23-1.53), type 2 diabetes (aHR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.09-1.50), CKD (aHR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.98-2.94), and all-cause mortality (aHR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.48-3.25).ConclusionsPWH have a heightened risk for CVD and common CVD risk factors, reinforcing the importance for regular screening for such conditions.

Original publication




Conference paper

Publication Date





1348 - 1356


Institute for Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.


Humans, HIV, HIV Infections, Cardiovascular Diseases, Myocardial Infarction, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Incidence, Risk Factors, Cohort Studies, Adolescent, Adult, Female, Male, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Stroke, United Kingdom