Background: Several studies have found increased risks of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) following the ChAdOx1 vaccination. However, case ascertainment is often incomplete in large electronic health record (EHR)-based studies. Objectives: To assess for an association between clinically validated TTS and COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: We used the self-controlled case series method to assess the risks of clinically validated acute TTS after a first COVID-19 vaccine dose (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Case ascertainment was performed uninformed of vaccination status via a retrospective clinical review of hospital EHR systems, including active ascertainment of thrombocytopenia. Results: One hundred seventy individuals were admitted to the hospital for a TTS event at the study sites between January 1 and March 31, 2021. A significant increased risk (relative incidence [RI], 5.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-31.38) of TTS 4 to 27 days after ChAdOx1 was observed in the youngest age group (18- to 39-year-olds). No other period had a significant increase, although for ChAdOx1 for all ages combined the RI was >1 in the 4- to 27- and 28- to 41-day periods (RI, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.88-2.63; and (RI, 1.70; 95% CI, 0.73-3.8, respectively). There was no significant increased risk of TTS after BNT162b2 in any period. Increased risks of TTS following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test occurred across all age groups and exposure periods. Conclusions: We demonstrate an increased risk of TTS in the 4 to 27 days following COVID-19 vaccination, particularly for ChAdOx1. These risks were lower than following SARS-CoV-2 infection. An alternative vaccine may be preferable in younger age groups in whom the risk of postvaccine TTS is greatest.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost
COVID‐19, COVID‐19 vaccines, SARS‐CoV‐2, thrombocytopenia, thrombosis